Colonoscopy is an endoscopic procedure that examines rectum and colon. In a colonoscopic procedure, colonic polyps can be extirpated and polyps can be biopsied in order to examine the tissue specimen in laboratory. A colonoscopy procedure starts in anus and it can be used for both diagnosis and treatment. A flexible tube with a light source and camera is used to examine colon.
Colonoscopy is usually performed for;
o Diagnosis of intestinal health problems,
o Persistent abdominal pain,
o Rectal bleeding,
o Chronic constipation,
o Idiopathic anemia or iron deficiency,
o Chronic diarrhea,
o Idiopathic or unintended weight loss.
In addition, this method is employed to screen colon cancer and check polyp.
Colorectal Cancer Screening: Colonoscopy should be performed for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer even if there is no complaint. Colonoscopy is advised for people older than 50 once every 5 years. Frequency of colonoscopy can be changed in people with positive family history of colon or rectum cancer.
Polyp Control: People, who have medical history of polyp in bowel, should have colonoscopy at certain intervals. Early diagnosis and extirpation of polyps is an important method to prevent colon cancer.